Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics Group
  We use molecular tools to study the evolution of diversity, and assist in its conservation

photo of carles Carles VilÓ

Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics Group
Estaciˇn Biolˇgica de Do˝ana - CSIC
Avda. AmÚrico Vespucio, 26
41092 Sevilla, Spain
Phone: +34-954 232340 ex. 1107

Research interests

My research focuses on evolutionary and conservation questions at the population and species levels. I believe that insight into the origin of genetic diversity within and between species, and its integration with ecological and behavioral studies, is fundamental for achieving a deeper understanding of natural processes and for the development of optimal strategies for conservation and management of the biodiversity.

I am currently leading a research line on the diversification and phenotypic evolution in Neotropical amphibians.

I also investigate the ongoing processes that drive diversity of domestic and wild canids.


Peer-reviewed Articles

The asterisk (*) pointes those papers that best symbolize my profile.




Similar genomic proportions of copy number variation within gray wolves and modern dog breeds inferred from whole genome sequencing
Serres-Armero A, Povolotskaya IS, Quilez J, Ramirez O, Santpere G, Kuderna LFK, Hernandez-Rodriguez J, Fernandez-Callejo M, Gomez-Sanchez D, Freedman AH, Fan Z, Novembre J, Navarro A, Boyko A, Wayne R, VilÓ C, Lorente-Galdos B, Marques-Bonet T (2017)
BMC Genomics 18, 977



Survival and divergence in a small group: the extraordinary genomic history of the endangered Apennine brown bear stragglers
Benazzo A, Trucchi E, Cahill J, Maisano Delser P, Mona S, Fumagalli M, Bunnefeld L, Cornetti L, Ghirotto S, Girardi M, Ometto L, Panziera A, Rota-Stabelli O, Zanetti E, Karamanlidis A, Groff C, Paule L, Gentile L, VilÓ C, Vicario S, Boitani L, Orlando L, Fuselli S, Vernesi C, Shapiro B , Ciucci P, Bertorelle G (2017)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 114(45), E9589ľE9597




A practical guide to build de-novo assemblies for single tissues of non-model organisms: the example of a Neotropical frog
Montero-Mendieta S, Grabherr M, Lantz H, De la Riva I, Leonard JA, Webster MT, VilÓ C (2017)
PeerJ 5:e3702

Quick Guide to Build De-novo Assemblies |


Conservation genetics in the European Union ľ Biases, gaps and future directions
PÚrez-Espona S, ConGRESS Consortium (2017)
Biological Conservation 209, 130ľ136

Author presentation of the paper



Cryptic within cryptic: genetics, morphometrics, and bioacoustics delimitate a new species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Eastern Cuba
RodrÝguez A, Dugo-Cota A, Montero-Mendieta S, Alonso R, Vences M, VilÓ C (2017)
Zootaxa 4221 (5), 501ľ522




Wolf population genetics in Europe: a systematic review, meta-analysis and suggestions for conservation and management
Hindrikson M, Remm J, Pilot M, Godinho R, Stronen AV, BaltrunaitÚ L, Czarnomska SD, Leonard JA, Randi E, Nowak C, ┼kesson M, Lˇpez-Bao JV, ┴lvares F, Llaneza L, Echegaray J, VilÓ C, Ozolins J, Rungis D, Aspi J, Paule L, SkrbinÜek T, Saarma U (2017)
Biological Reviews 92, 1601-1629


Supp. Info.|




Whole mitochondrial genomes illuminate ancient intercontinental dispersals of grey wolves (Canis lupus)
KoblmŘller S, VilÓ C, Lorente-Galdos B, Dabad M, Ramirez O, Marques-Bonet O, Wayne RK, Leonard JA (2016)
Journal of Biogeography 43, 1728ľ1738


Supp. Info.|
Press coverage: BBC


Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals
Gonzalez-Voyer A, González-Suárez M, Vilà C, Revilla E (2016)
Evolution 70 (6), 1364-1375


Supp. Info.|
Press coverage: BBC


Reply to Garner et al.
Shafer ABA, Wolf JBW, Alves PC, Bergstr÷m L, Colling G, DalÚn L, De Meester L, Ekblom R, Fior S, Hajibabaei M, Hoezel AR, H÷glund J, Jensen EL, KrŘtzen M, Norman AJ, Ísterling EM, Ouborg NJ, Piccolo J, Primmer CR, Reed FA, Roumet M, Salmona J, Schwartz MK, Segelbacher G, Thaulow J, Valtonen M, Vergeer P, Weissensteiner M, Wheat CW, VilÓ C, Zielinski P (2016)
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 31 (2), 83-84




Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves
Fan Z, Silva P, Gronau I, Wang S, Serres Armero A, Schweizer RM, Ramirez O, Pollinger J, Galaverni M, Ortega Del-Vecchyo D, Du L, Zhang W, Zhang Z, Xing J, VilÓ C, Marques-Bonet T, Godinho R, Yue B, Wayne RK (2016)
Genome Research 26 (2), 163-173



Multiple paternity in a reintroduced population of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El FrÝo Biological Station, Venezuela
Rossi Lafferriere NA, Antelo R, Alda F, Mňrtensson D, Hailer F, Castroviejo-Fisher S, AyarzagŘena J, Ginsberg JR, Castroviejo J, Doadrio I, VilÓ C, Amato G (2016)
PLoS ONE 11 (3), e0150245


Bottlenecks and selective sweeps during domestication have increased deleterious genetic variation in dogs
Marsden CD, Ortega-Del Vecchyo D, OĺBrien DP, Taylor JF, Ramirez O, VilÓ C, Marques-Bonet T, Schnabel RD, Wayne RK, Lohmueller KE (2016)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 113 (1), 152-157




Demographically-based evaluation of genomic regions under selection in domestic dogs
Freedman AH, Schweizer RM, Ortega-Del Vecchyo D, Han E, Davis BW, Gronau I, Silva PM, Galaverni M, Fan Z, Marx P, Lorente-Galdos B, Ramirez O, Hormozdiari F, Alkan C, VilÓ C, Squire K, Geffen E, Kusak J, Boyko AR, Parker HG, Lee C, Tadigotla V, Siepel A, Bustamante CD, Harkins TT, Nelson SF, Marques-Bonet T, Ostrander EA, Wayne RK, Novembre J (2016)
PLoS Genetics 12 (3), e1005851


Postcopulatory sexual selection favors fertilization success of restocking hybrid quails over native Common quails (Coturnix coturnix)
Sanchez-Donoso I, Morales-Rodriguez PA, Puigcerver M, Caballero de la Calle JR, VilÓ C, RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD (2016)
Journal of Ornithology 157, 33-42



Decades of population genetic research reveal the need for harmonization of molecular markers: the grey wolf Canis lupus as a case study
de Groot GA, Nowak C, SkrbinÜek T, Andersen LW, Aspi J, Fumagalli L, Godinho R, Harms V, Jansman HAH, Liberg O, Marucco F, Myslajek RW, Nowak S, Pilot M, Randi E, Reinhardt I, Smietana W, Szewczyk M, Taberlet P, VilÓ C, Mu˝oz-Fuentes V (2016)
Mammal Review 46, 44-59



100. Griesser M, Halvarsson P, Drobniak SM, VilÓ C (2015) Fine-scale kin recognition in the absence of social familiarity in the Siberian jay, a monogamous bird species. Molecular Ecology 24: 5726-5738. DOI: 10.1111/mec.13420 |

99*. Dugo-Cota A, Castroviejo-Fisher S, VilÓ C, Gonzalez-Voyer A (2015) A test of the integrated evolutionary speed hypothesis in a Neotropical amphibian radiation. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 804ľ813. |

98. Brandariz-Fontes C*, Camacho-Sanchez M*, VilÓ C, Vega-Pla JL, Rico C, Leonard JA (2015) Effect of the enzyme and PCR conditions on the quality of high-throughput DNA sequencing results. Scientific Reports 5: Article 8056. (*Equal contribution) Link |

97. Mu˝oz-Fuentes V, Marcet-Ortega M, Alkorta-Aranburu G, Linde Forsberg C, Morrell JM, Manzano-Piedras E, S÷derberg A, Daniel K, Villalba A, Toth A, Di Rienzo A, Roig I, VilÓ C (2015) Strong artificial selection in domestic mammals did not result in an increased recombination rate. Molecular Biology and Evolution 32(2): 510-523. |
Supporting information Journal Cover

96. Shafer ABA, Wolf JBW, Alves PC, Bergstr÷m L, Bruford MW, Brńnnstr÷m I, Colling G, DalÚn L, De Meester L, Ekblom R, Fawcett KD, Fior S, Hajibabaei M, Hill JA, Hoezel AR, Hoglund J, Jensen EL, Krause J, Kristensen TN, KrŘtzen M, McKay JK, Norman AJ, Ogden R, Ísterling EM, Ouborg NJ, Piccolo J, Popovic D, Primmer CR, Reed FA, Roumet M, Salmona J, Schenekar T, Schwartz MK, Segelbacher G, Senn H, Thaulow J, Valtonen M, Veale A, Vergeer P, Vijay N, VilÓ C, Weissensteiner M, Wennerstr÷m L, Wheat CW, Zielinski P (2015) Genomics and the challenging translation into conservation practice. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 30(2): 78-87. Appendix S1


95. Sanchez-Donoso I, RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD, Quintanilla I, JimÚnez-Blasco I, SardÓ-Palomera F, Nadal J, Puigcerver M, VilÓ C (2014) Influence of game restocking on the migratory behavior of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix). Evolutionary Ecology Research 16.

94. Hoban S, Arntzen JA, Bruford MW, Godoy JA, Hoelzel AR, Segelbacher G, VilÓ C, Bertorelle G (2014) Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion. Evolutionary Applications 7 (9): 984-998. Link

93. Baranowska K÷rberg I, Sundstr÷m E, Meadows JRS, Rosengren Pielberg G, Gustafson U, Hedhammar A, Karlsson EK, Seddon J, S÷derberg A, VilÓ C, Zhang X, Akesson M, Lindblad-Toh K, Andersson G, Andersson L (2014) A simple repeat polymorphism in the MITF-M promoter is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs. PLoS ONE 9: e104363. Link

92. Ramirez O, Olalde I, Berglund J, Lorente-Galdos B, Hernandez-Rodriguez J, Quilez J, Webster MT, Wayne RK, Lalueza-Fox C, VilÓ C, Marques-Bonet T (2014) Analysis of structural diversity in wolf-like canids reveals post-domestication variants. BMC Genomics 15: 465. Link

91. Mu˝oz-Fuentes V, Linde Forsberg C, VilÓ C, Morrell, J (2014) Single layer centrifugation separates spermatozoa from diploid cells in epididymal samples from grey wolves, Canis lupus (L.). Theriogenology, 82: 773ľ776.

90*. Sanchez-Donoso I, Huisman J, Echegaray J, Puigcerver M, RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD, Hailer F, VilÓ C (2014) Detecting slow introgression of invasive alleles in an extensively restocked game bird. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 2: 00015. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2014.00015 Link
Scripts for genotype simulation. Genotype data set available from the Dryad Digital Repository.

89. Puigcerver M, Sanchez-Donoso I, VilÓ C, SardÓ-Palomera F, GarcÝa-Galea E, RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD (2014) Decreased fitness of restocked hybrid quails prevents fast admixture with wild common quails. Biological Conservation 171: 74-81. |

88. Freedman AH, Gronau I, Schweizer RM, Ortega-Del Vecchyo D, Han E, Silva PM, Galaverni M, Fan Z, Marx P, Lorente-Galdos B, Beale H, Ramirez O, Hormozdiari F, Alkan C, VilÓ C, Squire K, Geffen E, Kusak J, Boyko AR, Parker HG, Lee C, Tadigotla V, Siepel A, Bustamante CD, Harkins TT, Nelson SF, Ostrander EA, Marques-Bonet T, Wayne RK, Novembre J. (2014) Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs. PLoS Genetics 10(1): e1004016. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004016. Link

87*. Castroviejo-Fisher S, Guayasamin JM, Gonzalez-Voyer A, VilÓ C (2014) Neotropical diversification seen through glassfrogs. Journal of Biogeography 41, 66-80.


86. Hoban S, Arntzen P, Bertorelle G, Bryja J, Fernandes M, Frith K, Gaggiotti O, Galbusera P, Godoy JA, Hauffe HC, Hoelzel AR, Nichols R, PÚrez-Espona S, Primmer C, Russo I-RM, Segelbacher G, Siegismund HR, Sihvonen M, Sj÷gren-Gulve P, Vernesi C, VilÓ C, Bruford MW (2013) Conservation Genetic Resources for Effective Species Survival (ConGRESS): bridging the divide between conservation research and practice. Journal for Nature Conservation 21(6), 433-437.

85. Puigcerver M, Sanchez-Donoso I, VilÓ C, SardÓ-Palomera F, Morales-RodrÝguez PA, Caballero de la Calle JR, RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD (2013) Hibridaciˇn entre la codorniz com˙n (Coturnix coturnix) y la codorniz de granja: estado de un problema de conservaciˇn. Ecosistemas 22 (2), 48-53.

84. Hoban SM, Gaggiotti OE, ConGRESS Consortium, Bertorelle G (2013) Sample Planning Optimization Tool for conservation and population Genetics (SPOTG): a software for choosing the appropriate number of markers and samples. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4 (3), 299-303.

83. Hoban SM, Hauffe HC, PÚrez-Espona S, Arntzen JW, Bertorelle G, Bryja J, Frith K, Gaggiotti OE, Galbusera P, Godoy JA, Hoelzel AR, Nichols RA, Primmer CR, Russo I-R, Segelbacher G, Siegismund HR, Sihvonen M, Vernesi C, VilÓ C, Bruford MW (2013) Bringing genetic diversity to the forefront of conservation policy and management. Conservation Genetics Resources 5 , 593-598.


82. Sanchez-Donoso I, VilÓ C, Puigcerver M, Butkauskas D, Caballero de la Calle JR, Morales-RodrÝguez PA, RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD (2012) Are farm-reared quails for game restocking really common quails (Coturnix coturnix)?: A genetic approach. PloS ONE 7 (6), e39031. Link

81. Larson G, Karlsson EK, Perri A, Webster MT, Ho SYW, Peters J, Stahl PW, Piper PJ, Lingaas F, Fredholm M, Comstock KE, Modiano JF, Schelling C, Agoulnik AI, Leegwater PA, Dobney K, Vigne J-D, VilÓ C, Andersson L, Lindblad-Toh K (2012) Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109 (23), 8878-8883.


80. Castroviejo-Fisher S, VilÓ C, AyarzagŘena J, Blanc M, Ernst R (2011) Species diversity of Hyalinobatrachium glassfrogs (Amphibia: Centrolenidae) from the Guiana Shield with the description of one new species. Zootaxa 3132, 1-55.

79. Mu˝oz-Fuentes V, Di Rienzo A, VilÓ C (2011) Prdm9, a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots, is not functional in dogs and their wild relatives, wolves and coyotes. PloS ONE 6 (11), e25498. Link

78. Vaysse A, Ratnakumar A, Derrien T, Axelsson E, Rosengren Pielberg G, Sigurdsson S, Fall T, Seppńlń EH, Hansen MST, Lawley CT, Karlsson EK, The LUPA Consortium, Bannasch D, VilÓ C, Lohi H, Galibert F, Fredholm M, Hńggstr÷m J, Hedhammar A, AndrÚ C, Lindblad-Toh K, Hitte C, Webster MT (2011) Identification of genomic regions associated with phenotypic variation between dog breeds using selection mapping. PloS Genetics 7,10 Link

77*. Castroviejo-Fisher S, Skoglund P, Valadez R, VilÓ C, Leonard JA (2011) Vanishing native American dog lineages. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11, 73 Link

76. Gonzalez-Voyer A, Padial JM, Castroviejo-Fisher S, De la Riva I, VilÓ C (2011) Correlates of species richness in the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24 (5), 931-942. (*Equal Contribution)
(Journal Cover; Press coverage:áEl Mundo, Quercus)

75. Sastre N, VilÓ C, Salinas M, Bologov VV, Urios V, Sßnchez A, Francino O, RamÝrez O (2011) Signatures of demographic bottlenecks in European wolf populations. Conservation Genetics 12, 701-712


74. Wang Z, Shen X, Liu B, Su J, Yonezawa T, Yu Y, Guo S, Ho SYW, VilÓ C, Hasegawa M, Liu J (2010) Phylogeographical analyses of domestic and wild yaks based on mitochondrial DNA: new data and reappraisal. Journal of Biogeography 37, 2332-2344

73. Agudo R, Rico C, VilÓ C, Hiraldo F, Donßzar JA (2010) The role of humans in the diversification of a threatened island raptor. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10, 384 Link


72*. Echegaray J, VilÓ C (2009) Noninvasive monitoring of wolves at the edge of their distribution and the cost of their conservation. Animal Conservation 13, 157-161

71. Padial JM, Castroviejo-Fisher S, K÷hler J, VilÓ C, Chaparro JC, De la Riva I (2009) Deciphering the products of evolution at the species level: the need for an integrative taxonomy. Zoologica Scripta 38, 431-447

70. Guayasamin JM, Castroviejo-Fisher S, Trueb L, AyarzagŘena J, Rada M, VilÓ C (2009) Phylogenetic systematics of Glassfrogs (Amphibia: Centrolenidae) and their sister taxon Allophryne ruthveni. Zootaxa 2100, 1-97


69. Castroviejo-Fisher S, Se˝aris JC, AyarzagŘena J, VilÓ C (2008) Resurrection of Hyalinobatrachium orocostale and notes on the Hyalinobatrachium orientale species complex (Anura: Centrolenidae). Herpetologica 64, 472-484

68. Echegaray J, Illana A, Hernando A, MartÝnez de Lecea F, Bayona J, Covela I, De la Torre JA, Paniagua D, VilÓ C (2007-2008) Anßlisis comparativo de la presencia de lobos (Canis lupus) y corzos (Capreolus capreolus) en el occidente de ┴lava (PaÝs Vasco, N. Espa˝a). Estudios del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de ┴lava 22, 133-136

67. Echegaray J, Illana A, Hernando A, MartÝnez de Lecea F, Bayona J, De la Torre JA, Paniagua D, Covela I, VilÓ C (2007-2008) Uso de tÚcnicas moleculares para sexar lobos (Canis lupus) a partir de muestras fecales del PaÝs Vasco y su entorno. Estudios del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de ┴lava 22, 129-131

66. Cruz F, VilÓ C, Webster MT (2008) The legacy of domestication: Accumulation of deleterious mutations in the dog genome. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25, 2331-2336

65. R°ed KH, Flagstad ě, Nieminen M, Holand ě, Dwyer MJ, R°v N, VilÓ C (2008) Genetic analyses reveal independent domestication origins of Eurasian reindeer. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B 275, 1849-1855

64. Guayasamin JM, Castroviejo-Fisher S, AyarzagŘena J, Trueb L, VilÓ C (2008) Phylogenetic relationships of glassfrogs (Centrolenidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48, 574-595

63*. Bj÷rnerfeldt S, Hailer F, Nord M, VilÓ C (2008) Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8, 28

62*. Sundqvist A-K, Ellegren H, VilÓ C (2008) Wolf or dog? Genetic identification of predators from saliva collected around bite wounds on prey. Conservation Genetics 9, 1275-1279

61. Malmstr÷m H, VilÓ C, Gilbert MTP, Storň J, Willerslev E, Holmlund G, G÷therstr÷m A (2008) Barking up the wrong tree: Modern northern European dogs fail to explain their origin. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8, 71

  2007 and further

60. Echegaray J, Illana A, Hernando A, MartÝnez de Lecea F, Bayona J, Covela I, de la Torre JA, Paniagua D, VilÓ C (2007) Uso de tÚcnicas genÚticas no invasivas para estimar el tama˝o y distribuciˇn del lobo (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) en el PaÝs Vasco (N. Espa˝a). Galemys 19, 3-18

59. Castroviejo-Fisher S, De la Riva I, VilÓ C (2007) Transparent frogs show potential of natural world. Nature (correspondence) 449, 972

58*. Leonard JA, VilÓ C, Fox-Dobbs K, Koch PL, Wayne RK, Van Valkenburgh B (2007) Megafaunal extinctions and the disappearance of a specialized wolf ecomorph. Current Biology 17, 1146-1150

57. Musiani* M, Leonard* JA, Cluff HD, Gates CC, Mariani S, Paquet PC, VilÓ C, Wayne RK (2007) Differentiation of tundra/taiga and boreal coniferous forest wolves: genetics, coat colour and association with migratory caribou. Molecular Ecology 16, 4149-4170 (*Equal contribution)

56. Geffen E, Waidyaratne S, DalÚn L, Angerbj÷rn A, VilÓ C, Hersteinsson P, Fuglei E, White PA, Goltsman M, Kapel CMO, Wayne RK (2007) Sea ice occurrence predicts genetic isolation in the Arctic fox. Molecular Ecology 16, 4241-4255

55. Lindberg J, Bj÷rnerfeldt JS, Bakken M, VilÓ C, Jazin E, Saetre P (2007) Selection for tameness modulates the expression of heme related genes in silver foxes. Behavioral and Brain Function 3, 18

54. Helander B, Hailer F, VilÓ C (2007) Morphological and genetic sex identification of white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings. Journal of Ornithology 148, 435-442

53*. Hailer F, Helander B, Folkestad AO, Ganusevich SA, Garstad S, Hauff P, Koren C, Masterov VB, Nygňrd T, Rudnick JA, Shiraki S, Skarphedinsson K, Volke V, Wille F, VilÓ C (2007) Phylogeography of the white-tailed eagle, a generalist with large dispersal capacity. Journal of Biogeography 34, 1193-1206

52. Castroviejo-Fisher S, AyarzagŘena J, VilÓ C (2007) A new species of Hyalinobatrachium (Centrolenidae: Anura) from SerranÝa de Perijß, Venezuela. Zootaxa 1441, 51-62. |

51. Arrendal J, VilÓ C, Bj÷rklund M (2007) Reliability of noninvasive genetic census of otters compared to field censuses. Conservation Genetics 8, 1097-1107

50. Bj÷rnerfeldt S, VilÓ C (2007) Evaluation of methods for single hair DNA amplification. Conservation Genetics 8, 977-981

49*. Mu˝oz-Fuentes V, VilÓ C, Green AJ, Negro JJ, Sorenson MD (2007) Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain. Molecular Ecology 16, 629-638

48. Bermejo M, RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD, Illera G, Barroso A, VilÓ C, Walsh PD (2006) Ebola outbreak killed 5000 gorillas. Science 314, 1564

47*. Bj÷rnerfeldt S, Webster MT, VilÓ C (2006) Relaxation of selective constraint on dog mitochondrial DNA following domestication. Genome Research 16, 990-994

46*. Hailer F, Helander B, Folkestad AO, Ganusevich SA, Garstad S, Hauff P, Koren C, Nygňrd T, Volke V, VilÓ C, Ellegren H (2006) Bottlenecked but long-lived: high genetic diversity retained in white-tailed eagles upon recovery from population decline. Biology Letters 2, 316-319

45*. Aspi J, Roininen E, Ruokonen M, Kojola I, VilÓ C (2006) Genetic diversity, population structure, effective population size and demographic history of the Finnish wolf population. Molecular Ecology 15, 1561-1576

44*. Sundqvist A-K, Bj÷rnerfeldt S, Leonard JA, Hailer F, Hedhammar ┼, Ellegren H, VilÓ C (2006) Unequal contribution of sexes in the origin of dog breeds. Genetics 172, 1121-1128

43. RamÝrez O, Altet L, Ense˝at C, VilÓ C, Sanchez A, Ruiz A (2006) Genetic assessment of the Iberian wolf Canis lupus signatus captive breeding program. Conservation Genetics 7, 861-878

42*. Mu˝oz-Fuentes V, Green AJ, Sorenson MD, Negro JJ, VilÓ C (2006) The ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in Europe: natural colonization or human introduction? Molecular Ecology 15, 1441-1453

41*. Lindberg J, Bj÷rnerfeldt S, Saetre P, Svartberg K, Seehuus B, Bakken M, VilÓ C, Jazin E (2005) Selection for tameness has changed brain gene expression in silver foxes. Current Biology 15, R915-R916

40*. VilÓ C, Seddon J, Ellegren H (2005) Genes of domestic mammals augmented by backcrossing with wild ancestors. Trends in Genetics 21, 214-218

39. Mu˝oz-Fuentes V, Gyllenstrand N, Negro JJ, Green AJ, VilÓ C (2005) Microsatellite markers for the two stifftail ducks, the white-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala, and the ruddy duck, O. jamaicensis. Molecular Ecology Notes 5, 263-265

38. Leonard JA, VilÓ C, Wayne RK (2005) Legacy lost: Genetic variability and population size of extirpated US grey wolves (Canis lupus.) Molecular Ecology 14, 9-17

37. Saetre P, Lindberg J, Leonard JA, Olsson K, Petersson U, Ellegren H, Bergstr÷m T, VilÓ C, Jazin E (2004) From wild wolf to domestic dog: gene expression changes in the brain. Molecular Brain Research 126, 198-206

36. Maldonado JE, Hertel F, VilÓ C (2004) Discordant patterns of morphological variation in genetically divergent populations of ornate shrews (Sorex ornatus). Journal of Mammalogy 85, 886-896

35*. Lindgren G, Backstr÷m N, Swinburne J, Hellborg L, Einarsson A, Sandberg K, Cothran G, VilÓ C, Binns M, Ellegren H (2004) Limited number of patrilines in horse domestication. Nature Genetics 36, 335-336

34. VilÓ C, Leonard JA, Iriarte A, O'Brien SJ, Johnson WE, Wayne RK (2004) Detecting the vanishing populations of the highly endangered Darwin's fox, Pseudalopex fulvipes. Animal Conservation 7, 147-153

33. Arrendal J, Walker CW, Sundqvist A-K, Hellborg L, VilÓ C (2004) Genetic evaluation of an otter translocation program. Conservation Genetics 5, 79-88

32. Flagstad ě, Walker CW, VilÓ C, Sundqvist A-K, Fernholm B, Hufthammer AK, Wiig ě, Koyola I, Ellegren H (2003) Two centuries of the Scandinavian wolf population: patterns of genetic variability and migration during an era of dramatic decline. Molecular Ecology 12, 869-880

31*. VilÓ C, Walker C, Sundqvist A-K, Flagstad ě, Andersone Z, Casulli A, Kojola I, Valdmann H, Halverson J, Ellegren H (2003) Combined use of maternal, paternal and bi-parental genetic markers for the identification of wolf-dog hybrids. Heredity 90, 17-24

30*. VilÓ C, Sundqvist A-K, Flagstad ě, Seddon J, Bj÷rnerfeldt S, Kojola I, Casulli A, Sand H, Wabakken P, Ellegren H (2003) Rescue of a severely bottlenecked wolf (Canis lupus) population by a single immigrant. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B 270, 91-97

29. VilÓ C, Ayuso A (2002) Uso de mÚtodos genÚticos no invasivos para estimar el tama˝o de la poblaciˇn de lobos (Canis lupus). Galemys 14, 60-63

28. Ayuso A, VilÓ C (2002) Desarrollo de tÚcnicas no invasivas para el muestreo genÚtico de la poblaciˇn escandinava de lobos (Canis lupus). Acta Granatense 1, 77-90

27*. Leonard JA, Wayne RK, Wheeler J, Valadez R, GuillÚn S, VilÓ C (2002) Ancient DNA evidence for Old World origin of New World dogs. Science 298, 1613-1616

26. Hellborg L, Walker CW, Rueness EK, Stacy JE, Kojola I, Valdmann H, VilÓ C, Zimmermann B, Jakobsen KS, Ellegren H (2002) Differentiation and levels of genetic variation in northern European lynx (Lynx lynx) populations revealed by microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA analysis. Conservation Genetics 3, 97-111

25*. Sundqvist A-K, Ellegren H, Olivier M, VilÓ C (2001) Y chromosome haplotyping in Scandinavian wolves (Canis lupus) based on microsatellite markers. Molecular Ecology 10, 1959-1966

24. Girman DJ, VilÓ C, Geffen E, Creel S, Mills MGL, McNutt JW, Ginsberg J, Kat PW, Mamiya KH, Wayne RK (2001) Patterns of population subdivision, gene flow and genetic variability in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Molecular Ecology 10, 1703-1723

23. VilÓ C, Ellegren H, G÷therstr÷m A, Leonard JA, Wayne RK (2001) Tales from the DNA of domestic horses-Reply. Science 292, 218-219

22*. VilÓ C, Leonard JA, G÷therstr÷m A, Marklund S, Sandberg K, LidÚn K, Wayne RK, Ellegren H (2001) Widespread origins of domestic horse lineages. Science 291, 474-477

21*. Maldonado JE, VilÓ C, Wayne RK (2001) Tripartite genetic subdivisions in the ornate shrew (Sorex ornatus). Molecular Ecology 10, 127-147

20. Walker CW, VilÓ C, Landa A, LindÚn M, Ellegren H (2001) Genetic variation and population structure in Scandinavian wolverine (Gulo gulo) populations. Molecular Ecology 10, 53-63

19. VilÓ C (2000) Hibridaciˇn entre perros y lobos: revisiˇn de estudios genÚticos y anßlisis de la situaciˇn en la PenÝnsula IbÚrica. Galemys 12 (NE), 45-56

18. Urios V, VilÓ C, Castroviejo J (2000) Estudio de la incidencia real de la depredaciˇn del lobo en la ganaderÝa comparando dos mÚtodos distintos. Galemys 12 (NE), 241-248

17*. VilÓ C, Amorim IR, Leonard JA , Posada D, Castroviejo J, Petrucci-Fonseca F, Crandall KA, Ellegren H, Wayne RK (1999) Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of the grey wolf Canis lupus. Molecular Ecology 8, 2089-2103

16. VilÓ C, Wayne RK (1999) Hybridization between wolves and dogs. Conservation Biology 13, 195-198

15*. VilÓ C, Maldonado J, Wayne JK (1999) Phylogenetic relationships, evolution, and genetic diversity of the domestic dog. Journal of Heredity 90, 71-77

14. Gonzßlez S, Maldonado JE, Leonard JA, VilÓ C, Barbanti Duarte JM, Merino M, Brum-Zorrilla N, Wayne RK (1998) Conservation genetics of the endangered Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). Molecular Ecology 7, 47-56

13. Vadillo JM, Reija J, VilÓ C (1997) Distribuciˇn y selecciˇn de hßbitat de la gardu˝a (Martes foina, Erxleben, 1777) en Vizcaya y Sierra Salvada (Burgos). Do˝ana, Acta Vertebrata 24, 39-49

12. Bascompte J, VilÓ C (1997) Fractals and search paths in mammals. Landscape Ecology 12, 213-221

11. VilÓ C, Maldonado J, Amorim IR, Wayne RK, Crandall KA, Honeycutt RL (1997) Man and his dog- Reply. Science 278, 206-207

10*. VilÓ C, Savolainen P, Maldonado JE, Amorim IR, Rice JE, Honeycutt RL, Crandall KA, Lundeberg J, Wayne RK (1997) Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science 276, 1687-1689

9. VilÓ C, RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD, Oliva F (1996) Diurnal cycles in microhabitat use by forest passerines: consequences for community structure. Ibis 138, 308-314

8. RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD, VilÓ C (1994) Habitat use in foraging treecreepers, Certhia spp.: orientation of flights. Bird Behaviour 10, 37-40

7. Biquand S, Urios V, Boug A, VilÓ C, Castroviejo J, Nader I (1994) Fishes as diet of a wolf (Canis lupus arabs) in Saudi Arabia. Mammalia 58, 492-494

6. VilÓ C, Castroviejo J (1994) Use of tiletamine and zolazepam to immobilize captive Iberian wolves (Canis lupus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30, 119-122

5. VilÓ C, Urios V, Castroviejo J (1994) Use of faeces for scent marking in Iberian wolves (Canis lupus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 72, 374-377

4. VilÓ C, Urios V, Castroviejo J (1993) Tooth losses and anomalies in the wolf (Canis lupus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 71, 968-971

3. VilÓ C, RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD (1992) Uso del hßbitat por un grupo de passeriformes en un abetal pirenaico; caracterizaciˇn y variaciˇn estacional. Historia Animalium 1, 99-108

2. VilÓ C, RodrÝguez-Teijeiro JD (1992) Resource partitioning in forest passerines: the temporal dimension. Ardea 80, 383-388

1. VilÓ C, Urios V, Castroviejo J (1990) Possible not male dominated interaction among Iberian wolves (Canis lupus). Mammalia 54, 312-314

Book Chapters

16. Leonard JA, VilÓ C (2014) The domestic horse (Equus caballus L. 1758). In: C. Smith, T. Denham, G. Larson, V. Paz, P. Rowley (Eds.) Agriculture and Domestication. Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. Springer.

15. Leonard JA, Echegaray J, Randi E, VilÓ C (2013) Impact of hybridization with domestic dogs on the conservation of wild canids. In: M Gompper (Ed.) Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation. Oxford University Press.

14. VilÓ C, Leonard JA (2012) Canid phylogeny and origin of the domestic dog. In: E.A. Ostrander & A. Ruvinsky (Eds.) The genetics of the dog. 2nd edition. CAB International, Oxon, UK.

13. VilÓ C (2010) Viabilidad de las poblaciones ibÚricas de lobos. Ense˝anzas de la genÚtica para la conservaciˇn. In: A. Fernßndez-Gil, F. ┴lvares, C. VilÓ & A. Ordiz (Eds.) Los lobos de la PenÝnsula IbÚrica. Propuestas para el diagnˇstico de sus poblaciones. ASCEL, Palencia.

12. VilÓ C, Leonard JA (2007) Origin of dog breed diversity. In: P. Jensen (Ed.) The Behavioural Biology of Dogs. CAB International.

11. Leonard JA, VilÓ C, Wayne RK (2006) From wild wolf to domestic dog. In: E.A. Ostrander, U. Giger & K. Lindblad-Toh (Ed.) The Dog and Its Genome. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

10. VilÓ C, Leonard JA, Beja-Pereira A (2006) Genetic documentation of horse and donkey domestication. In: M.A. Zeder, D. Decker-Walters, D. Bradley & B.D. Smith (Eds.) Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms. California University Press.

9. Wayne RK, Leonard JA, VilÓ C (2006) Genetic analysis of dog domestication. In: M.A. Zeder, D. Decker-Walters, D. Bradley & B.D. Smith (Eds.) Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms. California University Press.

8. Wayne RK, Geffen E, VilÓ C (2004) Conservation genetics of canids. In: C. Sillero-Zubiri, M. Hoffmann & D.W.Macdonald (Eds.) Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

7. Wayne RK, Geffen E, VilÓ C (2004) Population genetics. Population and conservation genetics of canids. In: D.W. Macdonald & C. Sillero-Zubiri (Eds.) Biology and Conservation of Wild Canids. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

6. Wayne RK, VilÓ C (2003) Molecular genetic studies of wolves. In: L.D. Mech & L. Boitani (Eds.) Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago University Press.

5. Wayne RK, VilÓ C (2001) Phylogeny and origin of the domestic dog. In: A. Ruvinsky & J. Sampson (Eds.) The Genetics of the Dog. CABI international, Oxon.

4. VilÓ C, Urios V, Castroviejo J (1995) Observations on the daily activity patterns in the Iberian wolf. In: L.N. Carbyn (Ed.) Ecology and Conservation of Wolves in a Changing World. Canadian Circumpolar Institute, Edmonton, Alberta.

3. VilÓ C, Urios V, Castroviejo J (1992) Activity patterns in the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus); influence of breeding. In: A. Diez-Noguera & T. Cambras (Eds.) Chronobiology and chronomedicine. Basic research and applications. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main.

2. VilÓ C, Castroviejo J, Urios V (1992) The Iberian wolf in Spain. In: C. Promberger & W. Schr÷der (Eds.) Wolves in Europe. Wildbiologische Gesellschaft MŘnchen e.V., Munich.

1. VilÓ C, Urios V, Castroviejo J (1990) EcologÝa del lobo en la Cabrera (Leˇn) y la Carballeda (Zamora). In: J.C. Blanco, L. Cuesta & S. Reig (Eds.) El lobo (Canis lupus) en Espa˝a. Situaciˇn, problemßtica y apuntes sobre su ecologÝa. Serie TÚcnica ICONA, Madrid.